Fukushima kiirgus hävitab putukaid

Allikas: www.novaator.ee
Liblikaröövikud, kes sõid Jaapani Fukushima tuumajaama lähedalt korjatud lehti, olid kidurama tervisega ja neil oli rohkem arenguhäireid, näitas ajakirjas BMC Evolutionary Biology ilmunud uurimus.
Fukushima lähiümbrus on elusolenditele veel mõnda aega ohtlik

Fukushima tuumajaama reaktor plahvatas 2011. aasta märtsis. Tekkinud saastehulka peeti alguses võrreldavaks Tšornobõli katastroofiga, kuid hilisemate mõõtmiste põhjal jäid kiirgusdoosid kardetust väiksemaks.

Fukushima lähiümbrus jääb elusolenditele siiski mõneks ajaks ohtlikuks. Jaapani Ryukyde ülikooli uurimuste kohaselt võivad eriti suures ohus olla putukad.

Joji Otaki uurimisrühma katseloomadeks on siniliblikad liigist Zizeeria maha. Teadlased on juba näidanud, et röövikuna suure kiirgusdoosi saamine rikub liblikate tiibade arengu.

Uurijad kogusid paar kuud pärast katastroofi tuumajaama lähedalt aed-jänesekapsa lehti ning söötsid neid liblikaröövikutele. Röövikutel tekkis rohkesti väärarendeid ja paljud surid.

Seejärel korjati taimelehti Jaapani eri piirkondadest 16-20 kuud pärast tuumaõnnetust. Lehtedega söödeti jälle liblikavastseid. Mida rohkem radioaktiivseid aineid sisaldas röövikute toit, seda suurem oli suremus.

Radioaktiivsete ainete sisaldust väljendatakse bekerellides (lühend Bq) mahu- või massiühiku kohta. Bekerell on aktiivsus, mille puhul toimub sekundis üks radioaktiivse tuuma lagunemine.

Algses katses kasutatud taimelehtede puhul ulatus radioaktiivsete ainete sisaldus tuhandete bekerellideni kilogrammi kohta. Uues uurimuses oli see 0,2 kuni 161 bekerelli kilogrammi kohta. Võrdluseks - Jaapanis on inimtoiduks mõeldud riisi, liha ja kala radioaktiivsete ainete sisalduse lubatud ülempiir 100 bekerelli kilogrammi kohta.

Uurijad järeldasid, et ka väikese koguse radioaktiivsete ainete sissesöömine võib osadele loomadele olla väga ohtlik.

Seejärel tegi Otaki katse eksperimendis kasutatud liblikate järeltulijatega. Need jagati kaheks rühmaks. Ühele söödeti sama radioaktiivseid lehti, mida sõid nende vanemad. Teise grupi röövikud said saastumata taimi.

Radioaktiivset toitu saanud röövikutel oli veel rohkem kehalisi hädasid kui nende vanematel ning nad elasid veel vähem. Saastumata toitu söönud röövikute puhul vähenes väärarendite arv enam-vähem tavapärasele looduses esinevale tasemele.

Allikas: www.novaator.ee

Otaki sõnul ei saa tulemusi  üle kanda inimesele ja teistele imetajatele. Liblikad on tõenäoliselt radioaktiivse kiirguse suhtes erakordselt tundlikud.

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