Maakera vesi on vanem kui Päike

Ilma veeta poleks Maal elu. Täna ajakirjas Science ilmunud uurimuse kinnitusel pärineb suur osa Päikesesüsteemi veest tähtedevahelisest ruumist ning on vanem kui Päike ise.
Osa Päikesesüsteemi veest pärineb tähtedevahelisest ruumist

Päikesesüsteem moodustus veidi enam kui 4,6 miljardit aastat tagasi, kui külm molekulaarse gaasi ja tolmu pilv ehk Päikese udukogu hakkas kokku tõmbuma. Pilv tihenes ja pöörles aina kiiremini. Selle keskele tekkis tihe ja kuum Päikese alge, mida ümbritses protoplanetaarne ketas – planeetide sünnipaik.

Kas meie tähesüsteemi vesi on pärit samast tähtedevahelise gaasi- ja tolmupilvest, millest sai alguse Päike või tekkisid veemolekulid hoopis hiljem? Astronoomidele pakub see suurt huvi, sest kui Päikesesüsteemi vesi pärineb tähtedevahelisest piirkonnast, on väga tõenäoline, et jäätunud vett võib leiduda kõigi noorte tähtede planeeditekkealas. Kui vesi tekkis alles Päikese sünni käigus, on pigem tõenäoline, et planeedisüsteemide veesisaldus on väga erinev.

Vee päritolu saab kindlaks teha vesiniku isotoopide uurimisel. Tähtedevahelises ruumis tekib veejää väga madalal temperatuuril ja seal on rohkelt deuteeriumi ehk rasket vesinikku, mille tuumas on lisaks prootonile veel üks neutron. Siiani polnud teada, kui palju rasket vesinikku sisaldavat vett suutis verinoor Päikesesüsteem toota.

USA Michigani ülikooli astronoomide loodud arvutimudel jäljendas Päikese protoplanetaarset ketast, milles oli kogu raske vesinik hävinud. Teadlased soovisid näha, kas ürgses Päikesesüsteemis sai tekkida sama suur deuteeriumihulk, nagu see on praegu teada meteoriidikildudes ja Maa ookeanivees.

Selgus et samasuguse raske vesiniku koguse tekkimine pole võimalik. Seega on suur osa Päikesesüsteemi veest vanem kui Päike ja pärineb tähtedevahelisest piirkonnast. Arvutuste kohaselt on sellist iidvana vett 30 kuni 50 protsenti. Kui Päikesesüsteem pole millegi poolest erandliku tekkelooga, võiks jäätunud vett leiduda kõikides verinoortes planeedisüsteemides.



2022-10-27 11:14:05
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